But as this surface grows, a second one eventually replaces it as the smallest. Indeed, in ongoing work, Almheiri’s team and a number of other groups are pursuing a more grounded description that they hope will reach the same conclusions as their hologram-within-a-hologram proof without leaning on the crutch of the extra dimension. For this reason, he said, “we’d all like to be able to do something intrinsic to this 2D theory without invoking holography as a magic black box.”. In the case of a black hole, the insight was that the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the hole might be entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Figuring out how the information gets out should point the way past Einstein’s theory to a more complete quantum theory of gravity. Or does the problem lie with Einstein’s theory? The reason that this lost information is such a major issue for quantum mechanics once again ties into thermodynamics. Get highlights of the most important news delivered to your email inbox.
But they treated the black hole’s matter like the flat part of a second hologram, letting these 2D quantum particles pop into a 3D image. One reason for Hawking’s change of mind was that he redid some of his earlier calculations and found that it was possible that, as an object fell into a black hole, it would disturb the black hole’s radiation field. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The “Black Hole Information Paradox” – universe, Infinity Model of the Universe(Part-4 Finale), Infinity model of the Universe(Part -3 Flow of Time/Time Waves), Infinity Model of the Universe(Part 2 -Different Opinions), Infinity Model of the Universe(Part 1-History of the Universe).
These are the so-called “Wheeler’s bags of gold”. “We know how to prove” that the shift in perspective works, he said, “but we don’t have a complete understanding of why this is happening.”. ( Log Out / Another way to approach the problem of black hole information loss is through the holographic principle of Leonard Susskind and Gerard ’t Hooft, or the related AdS/CFT correspondence developed by Juan Maldacena. Daniel Robbins received his PhD in physics from the University of Chicago and currently studies string theory and its implications at Texas A&M University. The holographic principle emerged from string theory as a proposed solution to this information paradox in the 1990s. But experts stress that while the higher-dimensional bridge may let the information out, a detailed account of how it is encoded in the radiation is still lacking. The holographic principle resolves the black hole information paradox within the framework of string theory. But does its information disappear with it, meaning quantum mechanics is wrong? As pointed out by Raphael Bousso, Thorn observed in 1978 that string theory admits a lower-dimensional description in which gravity emerges from it in what would now be called a holographic way. “It’s magic,” said Ahmed Almheiri, a physicist at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, who co-authored the recent paper. view all (6) Computation Theory. What does your formalism mean for computational complexity theory? In doing so, he lost a 1997 bet with physicist John Preskill. But even if the fancy holography tricks don’t stand, black hole researchers express excitement that Hawking’s information paradox is able to transport them to the boundaries of known physics. The formation of a black hole and its ultimate evaporation are described by a unitary process that respects the laws of quantum mechanics. “They are providing very significant new evidence in favor of that rule,” Penington said. Not even the researchers themselves fully grasp the physical implications of the math they explore in a recent paper. for a tidy introduction to the subject. If information can be lost, then quantum mechanics isn’t a secure theoretical structure.
A common concern, however, is that the authors might be reading too much meaning into this abstract calculation.
This means that the black holes would begin generating heat, rising up to billions of billions of degrees in mere moments. Hi you have a cool website It was very easy to post I enjoyed your site. It’s possible that the information that enters a black hole is, in some way, passed from this universe into a parallel universe. Hawking had said that if an object falls into a black hole, the only information that is retained are the quantum mechanical properties of mass, spin, and charge. Are your models consistent with the holographic principle/AdS-CFT correspondence? While information appeared trapped in the black hole’s interior in 2D, the researchers found that after the hologram popped off the page, portions of the black hole interior became geometrically linked to portions of the exterior, providing an escape route for information. Change ). Still one other approach is to look at the potential multiverse. They’re now using the holographic approach to try to track the flow of information through a black hole. But Hawking’s calculation contradicted this. The controversy over the black hole information paradox is described in detail in Susskind’s 2008 book, The Black Hole War: My Battle with Stephen Hawking to Make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics. They located this hidden path using an imperfectly understood technique for spying on a black hole from a higher dimension. There’s the familiar view of a black hole as a volume of space in which gravity is so strong, and the fabric of space-time bends so steeply inward, that not even light can climb out. While this doesn’t quite solve the paradox insofar as it doesn’t explain how the information actually escapes, it’s encouraging that — at least in AdS/CFT — there does seem to be a mechanism for correctly tracking the entropy as the black hole evaporates. Filming by Petr Stepanek.
The latest paper, posted online in late August, went further, offering a new way to think about Hawking’s math. He is the Physics Guide for the New York Times' About.com Web site. But in the abstract mathematical threads, they and others see the outlines of a bridge to the black hole’s interior, an escape route for trapped data. See Brian Koberlein’s black holes tell no tales or do they? The black hole information paradox asks what happens to the information that gets tossed into a black hole.
Abusive, profane, self-promotional, misleading, incoherent or off-topic comments will be rejected. Yet after 45 years of grappling with this “black hole information paradox,” no one has pinpointed the alleged misstep in Hawking’s calculation. “This is the beginning of a theoretical understanding of what’s going on in terms of radiation,” said Netta Engelhardt, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who worked with Almheiri on the May publication, “but it’s not an operational description for how to extract the information.”.
This paradox may well have a solution in string theory, either in the string theory analyses described in the previous section or in the holographic principle. The holographic principle However, there exist classical solutions to the Einstein equations that allow values of the entropy larger than those allowed by an area law, hence in principle larger than those of a black hole. “It seemed like it was a really crazy thing,” Almheiri said, “but we took a chance.”. They took a 2D black hole and separately considered its two elements: the matter inside it, and the gravity produced by that matter. He applied both quantum mechanics and Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity to the space around a black hole and found that quantum jitters cause the black hole to emit radiation that’s perfectly random, carrying no information.
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