Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Additional troops were gained through conscription of the Mongol tribes and contingents from allies and conquered territories. Perhaps their greatest effect on world culture was to make the first serious connections between the East and West. Genghis forged the empire by uniting the nomadic tribes of the Asian steppe and creating a devastatingly effective army based on fast, light, and highly coordinated cavalry. But Genghis Khanâs death in 1227 ultimately doomed the empire he founded. A modern mural in Inner Mongolia depicts the inauguration of Genghis Khan. At its peak, it covered some 9 million square miles (23 million square km) of territory, making it the largest contiguous land empire in world history. There were, alas, less advantageous consequences, like the Black Death (1347-1352 CE), first transferred from a pocket of remote China to the Black Sea and from there to Venice and the rest of Europe. Bust of Genghis Khanby Jim Garamone (Public Domain). The empire was founded in 1206, when Temijin, son of a Mongol chieftain, assumed power and changed his name to Chinggis Khan (styled as âGenghis Khanâ in the West and meaning âuniversal rulerâ). At these events a strategy known as the nerge was employed where riders encompassed a huge area of steppe and slowly drove the game - anything from marmots to wolves - into an ever-smaller area where they could be more easily killed by mounted archers. From 1218 CE, the Persian Khwarazm Empire was attacked. The empire adapted constantly as it grew, and flourished during a 162-year-long period of aggressive expansion. Genghis, born Temujin c. 1162 CE, overcame a harsh childhood of abandonment and poverty and established himself as an able military commander for Toghril, chief of the Kerait tribe. For the siege of walled cities they frequently secured assistance from artisans and engineers of technically advanced conquered peoples such as Chinese, Persians, and Arabs. While the Great Khans had been preoccupied with the eastern part of the Mongol Empire, the central and western parts largely went their own way. Victories were gained against the Bulgars, Rus, Poles, and Hungarians in multiple campaigns. He united Mongoliaâs tribes and supported Chinaâs peasant economy by stabilizing taxes and establishing rural cooperatives. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The unified empire would endure until 1260 CE when the four khanates became fully autonomous (see below). The Mongol Empire: Genghis Khan, His Heirs and the Founding of Modern... Genghis Khan: His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He embraced trade and religious freedom, and adopted advanced technology of the time, such as stirrups, composite bows, leather armor, and gunpowder. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Four Khanates of the Mongol Empireby Arienne King (CC BY-NC-SA). Books The herds being too valuable as a sustainable source of milk, wool, and even dung for fuel, meat was typically acquired through hunting and wild fruits and vegetables were gathered through foraging. Last modified November 11, 2019. Their movements and maneuvers were directed by signals and a well-organized messenger service. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.
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